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InfoWise

InfoWise is an information literacy programme developed by Nelson Mandela University Library and Information Services.

Analyse your topic

Make sure you interpret and understand your topic correctly. Look out for words which instruct you to do something specific.

 

Background Reading

Doing some background reading will give you a better understanding of your topic and direction for your research. The aim of a background information search is to define terms and get an overview of the topic.

 

Tip The first thing to do is to start compiling a list of possible keywords that you can use when searching for information.

 

The following resources are a good start to do background reading on your topic.

Dictionaries and encyclopedias

General dictionaries and subject dictionaries can help you define the words used in your assignment question. Encyclopedias provide facts and give expert summaries on a topic.

Dictionaries and encyclopedias can be found in the Library in print and in electronic format. The Library has a subscription to Oxford Reference Online. You need a Library PIN to access Oxford Reference off campus.

 

Search engines

A search engine like Google will help you define your topic, by using the word "define" alongside your keywords.

Google

Instruction words in the assignment topic

Instruction words in English, Xhosa and Afrikaans

Please have a look at this list of “Instruction/Task Words” compiled by Mandela Uni's Academic Literacies Writing Programme. This list explains in English, Xhosa and Afrikaans what each of the instruction/task words mean. 

 

English interpretation

Xhosa translation

Afrikaans translation

ANALYZE

Make an analysis of detailed examination

 

Separate into parts and interpret

HLAHLELA

Yenza uhlahlelo lwenkcukacha yoviwo

 

Yahlula ibe ngamaqhekeza uze utolike

ONTLEED

Doen ‘n ontleding van gedetailleerde ondersoek

Breek op in verskillende dele en interpreteer

COMMENT

Opinion given

Explanatory note

YENZA

(Amagqabantshi’inthshi)

Uluvo ulunikiwe

Iletana yenkcazelo

LEWER KOMMENTAAR

Gee opinie

Gee verduideliking

COMPARE

Estimate similarity of

Declare to be similar

Be worthy of comparison

THELEKISA

Thelekelela ufaniso Iwe:

Bhengeza ukufana (imfano)

Mayibe nexabiso lothelekiso

VERGELYK

Bepaal verskille en ooreenkomste

CONTRAST

Difference shown by comparison.

Compare so as to show differences

AHLUKANISA

Umahluko uboniswa ngokuthelekisa

Thelekisa ukubonisa iyantlukwano

KRITISEER

‘n Kritiese bespreking, sterkpunte, swakpunte

CRITICIZE

Express

HLALUTYA

Faxanga uhlalutyo Iwe

KRITISEER

‘n kritiese bespreking, sterkpunte, swakpunte

DEFINE

Give a definition of

State precisely

Outline clearly

Mark the boundary of

CHAZA

Nika inkcazo ye

Cacisa okanye chaza gca

Gqabaza ngokucacileyo

Yenza umda we

DEFINIEER

Verskaf ‘n definisie van

Gee afbakening van onderwerp

Gee presiese beskrywing

Duidelike raamwerk

DESCRIBE

Give a description of

CHAZA

Nika inkcazo ye

BESKRYF

Gee ‘n besdrywing van

 

DIFFERENTIATE

Be a difference between

Distinguish between

Develop differences

YAHLULA

Yahlula phakathi kwe

 Yahlula phakathi kwe

Khulisa umahluko

DIFFERENSIEER

Daar moet ‘n verskil wees

Maak die verskille duidelik

Ontwikkel verskille

DISCUSS

Examine by argument

Talk or write about

XOXA

Vavanya ngengxoxo

Thetha okanye ubhale nge

BESPREEK

Ondersoek d.m.v. ‘n argument

Praat of skryf oor

EXAMINE

Look at closely in order to learn about or from

Question formally

VAVANYA

Jongisisa ukuze ufunde nge:- okanye kwi –

Buza ngokolandelo-migaqo

ONDERSOEK

Kyk krities daarna om iets daaruit te leer of om dit beter te verstaan

EVALUATE

Find or state the value of

NIKA IXABISO

Khangela okanye uchaze ixabiso le:-

EVALUEER

Doen ‘n waardebepaling

Vind uit wat die waarde is of noem die waarde

EXPLAIN

Make clear

Show the meaning of

Account for

CHAZA

Cacisa

Bonisa intsingiselo ye –

Chaza nge

VERDUIDELIK

Maak duidelik

Maak die betekenis duidelik

Gee rekenskap van

IDENTIFY

Recognise as being specified person or thing

Consider to be identical

Associate oneself closely in feeling or interest

CHONGA

Yivume okanye yibone njengondoqo/ uqobo lomntu okanye into

Yiqwalasele njengento efanayo

Zinxulumanise ngokusondeleyo ngemvo okanye umdla

IDENTIFISEER

Erken dat dit ‘n bepaalde persoon of ding is

Sien dit as identies

Assosieer daarmee m.b.t. eie gevoelens of belangstelling

ILLUSTRATE

Make clear by examples or pictures

ZEKELISA

Cacisa ngemizekelo okanye imifanekiso

ILLUSTREER

Maak duidelik d.m.v. voorbeelde of prente ens.

INTERPRET

Explain the meaning of

 Act as an interpreter

TOLIKA

Chaza intsingiselo ye:-

 Yenza ngokungathi uyitoliki

INTERPRETEER

Verduidelik die betekenis daarvan

Tree op as interpreteerder

 

JUSTIFY

Show to be right or just or reasonable

THETHELELA

Bonisa ukulunga okanye ukufaneleka okanye ukuvakala

REGVERDIGING

Bewys dat dit reg of regverdig of redelik is

Bewys dat daar genoeg rede daarvoor is

LIST

Written, printed series, items, figures etc.

YENZA ULUHLU

Olubhaliweyo, olushicelelweyo lwamagama, izinto amanani njalonjalo

LYS/NOEM

Geskrewe of gedrukte reeks van name, items, figure ens.

MENTION

Speak or write about briefly

Refer to by name

CHAPHAZELA

Thetha okanyelubhale ngokufutshane nge:-

Yibize nge gama (singisa kuyo ngegama)

NOEM

Praat of skryf kortliks

Verwys daarna by naam

OUTLINE

Summary

Show a thing’s shape

GQABAZA

Isishwanka thelo

Bonisa isakheko kwento ukwakheka

OPSOM/OMLYN

Opsomming; gee oorsig; skets die hoofpunte

REVIEW

General survey of events or a subject

Reconsideration

Report assessing the merits of a book or a play

HLAZIYA

Ucando ngokubanzi

iweziganeko okanye umxholo

Uphindo-ngqwalaselo

Nika ingxelo uhlalutye

Incwadi okanye umdlalo

RESENSIE

Algemene oorsig van geberure of onderwerp

 Heroorweging

Rapporteer d.m.v ‘n waardebepaling van meriete van ‘n boek of toneelstuk ens.

STATE

Express in words

Specify

XELA

Faxanga ngamazwi

Chaza-ngqo

NOEM

Druk uit in woorde

Spesifiseer

SHOW

Allow or cause to be seen

Offer for inspection or viewing

 

BONISA

Vuma okanye wenze ukuba ubonwe

Nikela ukuba uhlolwe okanye wenziwe imbono

Qondakalisa

Yalatha-gca

Ngqina

Yenza ukuba kuqondwe

Nika umfanekiso we:-

WYS

Help die leser om die prent te sien

Bewys

Help die leser om te verstaan

Bied dit op so ‘n wyse aan dat die leser dit kan besigtig

SUMMARISE

(To make a) statement

Gving the main points of something brief give main points only without attention to details or formalities

SHWANKATHELA

Ukwenza inkcazo unike qmanqaku

Aphambili ngomba

Ngokufutshane

Nika amanqaku aphambili kuphela

Ngaphande kwengqalelo

Kwinkcukacha okanye ulandelo migaqo

SOM OP

Maak ‘n stelling en gee die hoofpunt kortliks, gee net die hoofpunt geen detail of formaliteite nie.

 

 

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