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APA (7th ed.) Reference Style

An introduction to the APA (American Psychological Association) 7th ed. referencing system with reference formats & examples.

Summary of the 6th to 7th ed. changes

The American Psychological Association has published the APA 7th ed. referencing style which is significantly different to APA 6th ed. 

There have been small alterations to most format examples.


Changes which will affect your work [this is not an exhaustive list] include:


In-text referencing

  • When using a narrative direct quotation the page number now moved to brackets at the end of the quote.
  • Author names listed in in-text references: For 3 or more authors cite only the surname of the first author followed by et al. 


Reference list

  • No longer need place of publication.
  • List all authors up to and including 20 authors.
  • No longer include the words ‘Retrieved from’ for online resources.
  • DOI format has changed. The format is now:

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