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APA (7th ed.) Reference Style

An introduction to the APA (American Psychological Association) 7th ed. referencing system with reference formats & examples.

Tweet: Reference format

Use your judgment in citing social media sources. Remember that what you cite should have scholarly relevance.

The basics of a reference list entry for a Tweet

  • Author or authors. The surname is followed by first initials.
  • Twitter handle (username) in [square brackets].
  • Year and date, e.g. (2020, January 21)
  • Title (in italics). Use the content of the Tweet up to the first 20 words.
  • Description of any attached audiovisuals in [square brackets], where relevant.
  • Description of format in [square brackets], for e.g. [Tweet]
  • Social media site name, e.g. Twitter
  • URL.
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.



Ref social media

APA Twitter ref example

Social media: Examples

Material Type In-Text Example Reference List Example


Highlighting the importance of speech pathology and the basic human right to communication (Speech Pathology Aus, 2017).

Speech Pathology Aus [@SpeechPathAus]. (2017, August 20).Communication is a human right, yet barriers to communication accessibility still exist. How can you help? #SPweek [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

For Twitter posts and profiles (see following) the name of the author (individual or group) is followed by their Twitter handle in [square brackets].

Twitter Profile

The Speech Pathology Aus(n.d.) Twitter profile provides a platform for advocacy...

Speech Pathology Aus [@SpeechPathAus]. (n.d.).Tweets[Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved January 21, 2020, from

Use (n.d.) for the date and include the retrieval statement because the content of the profile homepage is constantly updating.

'Tweets' (title) is the default tab when viewing a Twitter profile, change this as appropriate if viewing a different tab, for example 'Media' or 'Likes'.

Facebook Post

Providing support and information during trauma (Australian Psychological Society [APS], 2020).

Australian Psychological Society. (2020, January 9).Children cope with trauma in different ways. Look for changes in behaviour that suggest they are unsettled or distressed [Image with link attached]. Facebook.

Use this format for other social media services such as Tumbler, LinkedIn, etc.

Facebook Page

..importance of having a social media presence (Australian Psychological Society, n.d.).

Australian Psychological Society. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved January 21, 2020, from

'Home' (title) is the default page when viewing a Facebook profile, change this as appropriate if viewing a different page, for example 'Posts' or 'Events'.

Instagram Photo or Video

A timely reminder from Cancer Council Australia (2019) on how to stay up to date with UV levels.

Cancer Council Australia [@cancercouncil]. (2019, December 17).Find your local UV levels [Infographic]. Instagram.

Instagram Highlight Cancer Council Australia (n.d.) chose to highlight bowel cancer...

Cancer Council Australia [@cancercouncil]. (n.d.). Australia has one of the highest rates of bowel cancer in the world [Highlight]. Instagram. Retrieved January 21, 2020, from

Use 'n.d.' for the date as the Highlight has no date (although individual stories in the Highlight might have different dates).

Because the Highlight can change at any time, include the retrieval statement.

Online forum post This Beyond Blue forum is described as "a place to meet friends and fellow travellers for a bit of company" (Kazzle, 2015, para. 3).

Kazzl. (2015, December 26).The BB cafe is open for business! Welcome to a new chill and chat place for everyone on the forum [Online forum post]. Beyond Blue.


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