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APA (7th ed.) Reference Style

An introduction to the APA (American Psychological Association) 7th ed. referencing system with reference formats & examples.

What is a DOI?


  • is a digital object identifier, a unique, permanent identification number that will take you straight to a document no matter where it is located on the Internet
  • figures prominently in the APA 7th edition referencing style, and where a book, journal, report or other publication has a DOI, it must be included in the reference
  • must always be presented in the format, for e.g.
  • the format (rather than https) is also acceptable to use.  However, if the item you are referencing has a DOI in a format other than these, it will need to be changed to the above format 
  • check if the DOI link works correctly before submitting


Video: What is a DOI?

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