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APA (7th ed.) Reference Style

An introduction to the APA (American Psychological Association) 7th ed. referencing system with reference formats & examples.

Dataset: Reference format

The basics of a reference list entry for a dataset:

  • Author or authors of dataset. Surname followed by first initials.
  • Year (or year range where relevant).
  • Title of dataset. (in italics)
  • Version (in round brackets, where relevant).
  • Format [in square brackets].
  • Publisher.
  • DOI or URL
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.

Example:

Ref datasets

Ref Dataset APA

 

Datasets: Examples

Material Type In-Text Example Reference List Example

Dataset  hhhhhhh    

(Paris et al., 2015)

OR

Paris et al. (2015) collated data using...

 Paris, T., Kim, J., & Davis, C. (2015). EEG responses to two contexts of AV speech presentation [Data set]. Western Sydney University. http://doi.org/10.4225/35/54bf146fa4012

Software & mobile apps: Reference format

The basics of a reference list entry for a mobile app:

  • Author or authors. Surname followed by first initials.
  • Year.
  • Title (in italics).
  • Version.
  • Format [in square brackets].
  • Publisher. This may be the App Store or Google Play Store.
  • URL
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.

Example:

Blub Blub. (2020). Speech blubs: Language therapy (Version 2.4.3) [Mobile App]. Google Play Store. https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.blubblub.app.speechblubs

APA ref software

Software & mobile apps: Examples

Material Type In-Text Example Reference List Example
Software            (Schoonjans, 2008)

Schoonjans, F. (2008). MedCalc Statistical Software (Version 9.5.2.0) [Computer software]. 3d2f.Com. http://3d2f.com/programs/13-638-medcalc-statistical-software-download.shtml

Reference list entries are not necessary for standard off-the-shelf software. Provide entries for specialised software. Add the version number after the name of the software.

Mobile App

Using the Speech Blubs app (Blub Blub, 2020)...

OR 

Blub Blub's (2020) app is aimed at kids with...

Blub Blub. (2020). Speech blubs: Language therapy (Version 2.4.3) [Mobile App]. Google Play Store. https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=org.blubblub.app.speechblubs

Test, scales & inventories: Reference format

The basics of a reference list entry for a test manual:

  • Author(s). Surname followed by first initials.
  • Year.
  • Title (in italics).
  • Format [in square brackets]
  • Publisher or Test Database.
  • URL
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.

Example:

Tellegen, A., & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (2011). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF): Technical manual. Pearson.

APA ref tests scales and inventories

Tests, scales & inventories: Examples

Material Type In-Text Example Reference List Example

Manual for a test, scale or inventory

...using the MMPI-2-RF(Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2011).

OR 

Tellegen & Ben-Porath (2011) devised the MMPI-2-RF...

Tellegen, A., & Ben-Porath, Y. S. (2011). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF): Technical manual. Pearson.

Test, scale or inventory

...testing subject's implicit associations regarding healthy versus unhealthy (Project Implicit, n.d.).

OR

Project Implicit (n.d.) provide a number of implicit association tests...

Project Implicit. (n.d.). Healthy Self IAT. https://implicit.harvard.edu/implicit/user/pih/pih/selectatest.html

Cite the test, scale or inventory itself only if other supporting literature (journal article or manual) is not available to cite.

 

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