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APA (7th ed.) Reference Style

An introduction to the APA (American Psychological Association) 7th ed. referencing system with reference formats & examples.

Standards: Reference format

The basics of a reference list entry for a standard retrieved online:

  • Author.
  • Year (in round brackets).
  • Standard title (in italics).
  • Standard number (in round brackets).
  • Publisher name.
  • Homepage URL of the publisher (as a direct URL is not available for standards).
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.

 

Example:

ref standards

APA ref standards

Standards: Examples

 
Material Type In-Text Example Reference List Example
Standard: Retrieved from a Database (Standards Australia & Standards New Zealand, 2018)

Standards Australia & Standards New Zealand. (2018). Interior and workspace lighting part 2.5: Hospital and medical tasks (AS/NZS 1680.2.5-2018). SAI Global. https://www.saiglobal.com/

Standard:Print (Standards Australia, 2013)

Standards Australia. (2013). Gas installations. Part 1, general installations (AS/NZS 5601.1:2013). SAI Global.

 

Patents: Reference format

The basics of a reference list entry for a patent retrieved online:

  • Author or authors. The surname is followed by first initials.
  • Year (in round brackets).
  • Title of patent (in italics).
  • Patent number (In round brackets) e.g. (Australian Patent No. AU xxxxxxxxxx).
  • Name of Patent Office. e.g. IP Australia for Australian patents, European Patent Office for European patents.
  • The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.

 

Example:

ref patents

Patents APA ref

Further information:

  • For the in-text citation give the author/s and the issue date (not the application date).
  • In the reference list entry, include the inventor(s) to whom the patent is issued and the official source from which the patent information can be retrieved.

Patents: Examples

 
Material Type In-Text Example Reference List Example

Patent: Online

(Australian)

(Bevitt, 2018)

Bevitt, A. J. (2018).Litter, waste disposal and recycling app. (Australian Patent No. AU 2018100960). IP Australia. http://pericles.ipaustralia.gov.au/ols/auspat/applicationDetails.do? application No=2018100960

Patent: Online

(International)

(Botura et al.,2018)

Botura, G. C., Wilson, T. M., & Hartzler, B. (2018). A method to join Nano technology carbon allotrope heaters. (European Patent No. EP3331317). European Patent Office. https://worldwide.espacenet.com/patent/search/family/060661756/publication/EP3331317A1?q=EP3331317

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